Design and development
Issues and values
Be Good to Yourself
Sainsbury's 'Be Good To Yourself' range is a range of
different products that share a common premise - lower fat and great
taste. The range is an example of how a nutrition concern can be used
successfully as a unique selling point, rather than a 'turn off' to
identified several reasons for focusing on the lower fat sector of the
- the healthy
food market is worth £6.3 billion
- 75% of the
UK population is concerned about their fat intake (Leatherhead Food
- the lower fat
sector has grown 32% over the last 3 years
- 38% of customers
bought Sainsbury's own brand lower fat food
In addition, Sainsbury's
are committed to making healthy eating easier and enjoyable for consumers.
The 'Be Good To Yourself' brand was developed because:
- The company's
healthy eating offer needed to be heightened. Its 'Healthy Balance'
symbol, which appeared on 25% of Sainsbury's own-brand products, had
low awareness in the store - only 23% of customers recognised it and
it was decided that greater impact was needed.
- Customers who
bought lower fat products were amongst the most valuable. Data obtained
from loyalty cards showed that the average amount spent by customers
who regularly bought lower fat products, was significantly higher
than those who purchased standard fat products.
- Customers found
it difficult to shop specifically for lower fat products and so were
very positive about the idea of a single, lower fat pack design to
make it easier to find the products in store. A clear, prominent identifying
logo and design was needed for the range.
- Customers perceived
that the taste of products carrying 'low fat' or 'light' claims would
be less good than the standard equivalent. So, the taste of the new
products would need to be extremely good to counteract this perception.
- Consumers commented
that there is often a limited range of low fat options in certain
- The 'Be Good
To Yourself' range was needed to offer a wide range of products and
choice. Generic style packaging and in-store promotions would ensure
that the products could be easily identified as being part of that
- Customers also
found fat labelling confusing, because there were so may different
types of claim used. A simple, informative but helpful approach was
the design and development process
what the opportunity was, and the problems associated with it, Sainsbury's
focused on who the target group should be, identified the barriers to
purchasing the products and devised clear criteria for design briefs for
the range. The target market was identified as:
- Demographic: females aged
35+, especially those with children
- Attitude: those aware of the
benefits of a lower fat diet, especially those who are not prepared
to achieve this at the expense of food enjoyment or convenience -
this includes 'improvers' (consumers looking to lead a healthier lifestyle,
but confused by the array of dietary advice) and 'guilty indulgers'
(consumers that aspire to looking good and possible a little slimmer;
enjoy indulgent foods and look for lower fat claims to appease their
The main barriers
to consumers purchasing lower fat products were found to be:
- low fat = low taste
- low fat = boring
- low fat claims = confusing
showed that 68% of consumers read fat claims; 33% thought general fat
claims were misleading and 28% found them confusing. In particular,
consumers were confused by fat claims such as 'light' or 'reduced fat'.
They preferred specific claims like '% fat free' and '% less fat'. For
this reason, all claims were changed to just these two specific ones
across the whole range.
briefs were created for each specific product within the range, general
principles were followed, including:
- products should 'match normal' (be as close to a standard product
- 'less Fat, all the Taste' (the taste of the reduced fat version
should not suffer)
- use the '% fat free' or '% less fat' claims only
- marketed using the new 'Be Good To Yourself' identity that clearly
communicates the offer to customers
About the manufacture
process used depends on the specific product being made. Here the processes
for several products from the 'Be Good To Yourself' range are outlined.
consideration to be addressed when developing and manufacturing any lower
fat product is 'how can the fat be decreased'? Essentially there are two
- substituting key ingredients with lower fat alternatives, egs. lower
fat crème fraiche for cream or novel fat replacers
- modifying cooking techniques, egs. grilling or baking rather than
is important to ensure that the product still has the required 'taste'
even if the fat content can be successfully reduced. Sometimes products
may be low fat, yet taste terrible! Therefore a mixture of techniques
must be used to ensure that the product is both low fat and tastes as
good as the standard product. An
example that demonstrates this point is the 'Be Good To Yourself' yogurt.The
following chart compares the composition of added ingredients of a standard
and 'Be Good To Yourself' strawberry yogurt.
& Creamy yogurt
To Yourself yogurt
ingredient list provides clues as to how the taste and texture of the
lower fat version were maintained. The standard product provides 127
Kcal/4.1g fat per 100g, yet the lower fat version 54 Kcal/0.1g fat per
100g. Clearly the fat has been reduced by the use of low fat yogurt.
Without additional ingredients to mimic the sensory qualities of fat,
egs.thickener, the lower fat product may have had a watery texture.
1. 'Be Good
To Yourself' Soup
Sainsbury's existing soups were reviewed, but since work had just been
completed on a 60 kcal range, the expense of developing a new BGTY range
could not be justified. Instead Sainsbury's existing range of four low
fat canned soups were selected for development.
A taste panel was set up to see whether they could be converted for
the 'Be Good To Yourself' range. The results of the tasting were poor,
and in addition, the sales of these soups were weak. They had unattractive
packaging and were 300g, rather than the standard 400g size. Therefore
a decision was made to discontinue the current range and develop a new
An outline design
brief was provided for the soup supplier. The brief suggested a number
of soup variants, all with a new twist, eg. Mexican tomato with chilli.
Essentially the soups were based around the flavours of tomato, chicken,
mushroom and vegetable, as these are the most popular soup varieties.
They had to be wholesome and warming, not watery or lacking in flavour
and contain no mono-sodium glutamate (MSG). In addition, the soup had
to be 99% fat free.
The supplier developed the new soups and sent the samples back to Sainsbury's.
Approximately 6-8 canned samples for each type of soup were sent.
At this stage
initial feedback was encouraged, with some soups being instantly discounted.
Comments were recorded and the supplier developed these further for
the second tasting session. It was acknowledged that the 'plant' samples
may differ from the 'kitchen' samples.
The second tasting session involved a much more formalised test with
30-40 people recording scores for different attributes. Four soups were
chosen from this data. For example, the session recommended that the
'Italian tomato and chicken' soup be renamed 'Mediterranean vegetables
and chicken', and the 'French Onion' soup be reformulated as it was
considered to have the appearance of 'school dinner gravy', the flavour
of 'bovril and stale onion' and the texture of 'mushy onions'. Further
reformulations were undertaken until all four soups were signed off
Unit operations for soup manufacture
materials arrive at the factory
added to soup mix
soup is cooked in large 'kettles'
cans are filled
'Be Good To Yourself' Frozen Ready Meals - 'Fishermen's Pie'
The supplier for the standard product was contacted and given the brief
to develop a lower fat version. Product samples were then sent back
to Sainsbury's where test panels were conducted. As the product is made
up from three components (ie fish, sauce and potato) emphasis was placed
on the sauce and potato, as fat reduction of those components could
be realistically achieved. For example, in the standard mash topping
butter and cream were used with dehydrated potato flakes, whereas the
lower fat version used fresh potatoes with butter flavouring and skimmed
milk powder. White fish, rather than oily fish, was used.
Once the developers
were happy with the reformulated lower fat product, it was put through
a trial run at the manufacturing plant. The same equipment was used
as with the standard product. A problem was encountered with the 'potato
topping' machine. Essentially this piece of equipment pumps potato through
nozzles onto the top of the product. However, the viscosity of the lower
fat product was different, which resulted in the topping not being piped
uniformly. Modifications were needed to the potato topping to make it
less viscous, ie less runny.
3. 'Be Good
To Yourself' Chilled Sponges
Standard sponges (with a fruit, chocolate or syrup topping) usually
contain around 20% fat, so the brief was to develop a product with 5%
Different ways in which fat could be reduced were investigated, egs.
the ratio of fruit to sponge was increased from that used in the standard
version; 'high ratio fat' was tried - less is used, but it works harder.
difficulty was developing a lower fat chocolate pudding, since when
the fat is removed from cocoa, it becomes chalky with a flat taste.
So, although a low fat claim could be made, the product would not meet
the 'taste' specification.
were tested. However, there were several problems with their use in
the mixtures, as well as the supplier not being able to guarantee the
replacers being 100% GM free. So, the developers went 'back to the drawing
board' and reviewed traditional cookery books for ingredients that could
be used. They discovered that many old recipes used apple puree as a
fat replacer. This was trialled and chosen as a suitable fat replacer
for the chocolate pudding, providing the required taste and texture.
'Be Good To Yourself' range was launched in May 1999, with the launch
strategy focused on breaking down the barriers to purchase, poor taste
and interest. The launch was led by a TV advert conveying the food visuals
of unusual low fat foods, such as pizza and puddings. A story line was
created showing a young woman, Lucy, indulging in Be Good to Yourself¹
products without feeling guilty, after just being 'dumped' by her boyfriend
Colin. The TV advert was part of a strong media campaign which included:
a sampling campaign in store; direct mailing to 400,000 people who had
been identified by the loyalty card as customers most likely to be interested
in the range; single page magazine adverts; and in store 'point-of-sale'
displays. The launch of the range resulted in an increase in sales for
lower fat products, by breaking down some of the barriers to buying
them. Branded sales for the year ending April 1999 (source: AC Nielsen)
show that the 'Be Good To Yourself' brand is positioned in the top 25
brands in the UK, ahead of Bold, Pringles, Felix, Carling and Heinz
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issues and values
an important role and functions:
- It provides
a concentrated source of energy. 1g of fat provides 37kJ (9kcal),
more than double that provided by either protein or carbohydrate which
provide 17kJ/g (4kcal) and 16kJ/g (3.75kcal), respectively
- It is a source
of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and contains the essential fatty
acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (n-6) and alpha linolenic acid (n-3).
These are important in the formation of cell membranes, particularly
in nerve tissue. About 1-2% of energy intake should come from EFAs.
- It contributes
to product texture and mouthfeel.
The average daily
intake of fat in the UK is 102g for men and 74g for women, which provides
around 40% of the food energy in the diet, and 38% of the total energy.
Most people in the UK eat more total fat and more saturated fat than
recommended amount needed to maintain health which is below 35%.
There are numerous ways to reduce the total amount of fat in the diet:
lower fat versions of dairy products, egs semi-skimmed or skimmed
milk, reduced fat cheese
- use less of
the full fat products use
lower fat meats, eg chicken (without skin) and lean cuts of meat
- use less fat
in cooking and use low fat spreads for bread
- grill and bake
foods instead of frying or roasting
- replace fat-containing
foods with fruits, vegetables or starch foods
To reduce the
amount of saturated fatty acids in the diet, lower fat options should
be chosen and fats richer in monounsaturated fatty acids (egs olive
oil, rapeseed oil) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (egs sunflower oil,
corn oil) should sometimes be used. The amount of fat in foods is often
shown on food labels. In many cases there is also information about
the saturated fatty acid (saturates) content in food.
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use of the case study - things to think about and do
Using this case study for the following tasks will help to develop your
properties of fat as a material
practices - recipe engineeering
product development - designing for particular markets
issues - food labelling legislation and nutrition claim
on the original brief given to the soup supplier (in the About the
manufacture section of this case study) develop your own ideas for
the BGTY soup range. Carry out a taste panel to evaluate your prototypes
for acceptability of taste, texture, appearance and aroma.
a range of 'fishermen' style products suitable to be placed in the
BGTY ready meal range. The product should offer the customer something
new and exciting, perhaps with the use of different fish, sauce flavours
or topping choices. The product should be sold frozen and be able
to be re-heated in a microwave.
the range of BGTY fresh 'puddings'. Investigate consumer reaction
to the following concepts: marbled sponge effects; layers of custard,
fruit or sauce; exotic ingredients, egs. crystallised ginger, polka
sensory discrimination tests on a range of standard and lower fat
products. Justify the tests that you performed and describe your results.
up batches of dehydrated and fresh potato mash. Devise an experiment
to investigate the ease of piping for each.
the effect on viscosity on the type or quantity of fat used in a basic
roux sauce. Justify your method of recording the viscosity of each
sauce and the results of the investigation.
two batches of small cakes, one using fat (eg. margarine or butter)
and the other using a fruit pulp (eg. apple puree). Compare and evaluate
a partner prepare a report that argues the case for and against the
role of fat in the diet. Include a consideration of the following
is the role and function of fat in the diet?
much fat is needed to maintain health and what factors determine
and why should the level of fat in the diet be reduced?
would constitute a balanced approach to fats in the diet?
is the role and value of fat-reduced products?
a range of ways in which low fat claims could be presented on a food
product. Which method do people prefer? Which method makes the fairest,
or most accurate, claims?
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'Design & Make it: Food Technology', Stanley Thornes, 1997, p36-47,
'D&T Routes: Food', RCA, Hodder & Stoughton, 1997, p61
'Food Technology' Unit, British Nutrition Foundation, 1998, MAFF
'Interactive CD-ROM' from BNF, Autumn 2000, for modelling cake
'Examining Food Technology', Anne Barnett, Heinemann, 1996, p56-57,
'Food Technology', Collins Real World Technology series, Inglis,
Plews & Chapman, p43-44, p51-54
'Hammond's Cooking Explained', Jill Davies, Longman, 1997, p79-83,
'Understanding Ingredients', Anne Barnett, Heinemann, 1998, p22-25
'The Science & Technology of Food', RK Proudlove, Forbes, 1994,
'96% fat-free carrot cake' case study (Click
here for more information on fat-reduced products and claims made
about fat on food labels)
www.which.net (report on fat reduced
more information on the functions of fat)
2000. All rights reserved
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